Author(s): Duret C, Wauthoz N, Sebti T, Vanderbist F, Amighi K, Duret C, Wauthoz N, Sebti T, Vanderbist F, Amighi K
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Abstract PURPOSE: Itraconazole (ITZ) dry powders for inhalation (DPI) composed of nanoparticles (NP) embedded in carrier microparticles were prepared and characterized. METHODS: DPIs were initially produced by reducing the ITZ particle size to the nanometer range using high-pressure homogenization with tocopherol polyethylene 1000 succinate (TPGS, 10\% w/w ITZ) as a stabilizer. The optimized nanosuspension and the initial microsuspension were then spray-dried with different proportions of or in the absence of mannitol and/or sodium taurocholate. DPI characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy for morphology, laser diffraction to evaluate the size-reduction process, and the size of the dried NP when reconstituted in aqueous media, impaction studies using a multistage liquid impactor to determine the aerodynamic performance and fine-particle fraction that is theoretically able to reach the lung, and dissolution studies to determine the solubility of ITZ. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the DPI particles were composed of mannitol microparticles with embedded nano- or micro-ITZ crystals. The formulations prepared from the nanosuspension exhibited good flow properties and better fine-particle fractions, ranging from 46.2\% ± 0.5\% to 63.2\% ± 1.7\% compared to the 23.1\% ± 0.3\% that was observed with the formulation produced from the initial microsuspension. Spray-drying affected the NP size by inducing irreversible aggregation, which was able to be minimized by the addition of mannitol and sodium taurocholate before the drying procedure. The ITZ NP-based DPI considerably increased the ITZ solubility (58 ± 2 increased to 96 ± 1 ng/mL) compared with that of raw ITZ or an ITZ microparticle-based DPI (<10 ng/mL). CONCLUSION: Embedding ITZ NP in inhalable microparticles is a very effective method to produce DPI formulations with optimal aerodynamic properties and enhanced ITZ solubility. These formulations could be applied to other poorly water-soluble drugs and could be a very effective alternative for treating invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
This article was published in Int J Nanomedicine
and referenced in Journal of Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis