Author(s): de Mara N, Becerril JM, GarcaPlazaola JI, Hernandez A, De Felipe MR, , de Mara N, Becerril JM, GarcaPlazaola JI, Hernandez A, De Felipe MR,
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Abstract The short-term effects of the herbicide glyphosate (1.25-10 mM) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, carbohydrate metabolism, and shikimate pathway were investigated in leaves and nodules of nodulated lupine plants. All glyphosate treatments decreased nitrogenase activity rapidly (24 h) after application, even at the lowest and sublethal dose used (1.25 mM). This early effect on nitrogenase could not be related to either damage to nitrogenase components (I and II) or limitation of carbohydrates supplied by the host plant. In fact, further exposure to increasing glyphosate concentrations (5 mM) and greater time after exposure (5 days) decreased nodule starch content and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 18.104.22.168) activity but increased sucrose content within the nodule. These effects were accompanied by a great inhibition of the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 22.214.171.124). There were remarkable and rapid effects on the increase of shikimic and protocatechuic (PCA) acids in nodules and leaves after herbicide application. On the basis of the role of shikimic acid and PCA in the regulation of PEPC, as potent competitive inhibitors, this additional effect provoked by glyphosate on 5-enolpyruvylshikimic-3-phosphate synthase enzyme (EPSPS; EC 126.96.36.199) inhibition would divert most PEP into the shikimate pathway, depriving energy substrates to bacteroids to maintain nitrogen fixation. These findings provide a new explanation for the effectiveness of glyphosate as a herbicide in other plant tissues, for the observed differences in tolerance among species or cultivars, and for the transitory effects on glyphosate-resistant transgenic crops under several environmental conditions.
This article was published in J Agric Food Chem
and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology