Author(s): S Goszczynski, A Paszczynski, M B PastiGrigsby, R L Crawford, D L Crawford
Pathways for the degradation of 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-azobenzene-4'-sulfonic acid (I) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyazobenzene-4'-sulfonamide (II) by the manganese peroxidase and ligninase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by the peroxidase of Streptomyces chromofuscus have been proposed. Twelve metabolic products were found, and their mechanisms of formation were explained. Preliminary oxidative activation of the dyes resulted in the formation of cationic species, making the molecules vulnerable to the nucleophilic attack of water. Two types of hydrolytic cleavage were observed. Asymmetric splitting gave rise to quinone and diazene derivatives, while symmetric splitting resulted in the formation of quinone monoimine and nitroso derivatives. These unstable intermediates underwent further redox, oxidation, and hydrolytic transformation, eventually furnishing 11 organic products and ammonia.