Author(s): Carey RM, Siragy HM
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Abstract The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a coordinated hormonal cascade in the control of cardiovascular, renal, and adrenal function that governs body fluid and electrolyte balance, as well as arterial pressure. The classical RAS consists of a circulating endocrine system in which the principal effector hormone is angiotensin (ANG) II. ANG is produced by the action of renin on angiotensinogen to form ANG I and its subsequent conversion to the biologically active octapeptide by ANG-converting enzyme. ANG II actions are mediated via the ANG type 1 receptor. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the components and actions of the RAS, including local tissue RASs, a renin receptor, ANG-converting enzyme-2, ANG (1-7), the function of the ANG type 2 receptor, and ANG receptor heterodimerization. The role of the RAS in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function is reviewed and discussed in light of these newly recognized components.
This article was published in Endocr Rev
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology