Author(s): Khan JA, Forouhar F, Tao X, Tong L
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Abstract Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has crucial roles in many cellular processes, both as a coenzyme for redox reactions and as a substrate to donate ADP-ribose units. Enzymes involved in NAD(+) metabolism are attractive targets for drug discovery against a variety of human diseases, including cancer, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration and Huntington's disease. A small-molecule inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, an enzyme in the salvage pathway of NAD(+) biosynthesis, is presently in clinical trials against cancer. An analog of a kynurenine pathway intermediate is efficacious against multiple sclerosis in an animal model. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase plays an important role in immune evasion by cancer cells and other disease processes. Inhibitors against kynurenine 3-hydroxylase can reduce the production of neurotoxic metabolites while increasing the production of neuroprotective compounds. This review summarizes the existing knowledge on NAD(+) metabolic enzymes, with emphasis on their relevance for drug discovery.
This article was published in Expert Opin Ther Targets
and referenced in Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine