alexa Nicotine: alcohol reward interactions.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Lajtha A, Sershen H

Abstract Share this page

Abstract It is well established that the continued intake of drugs of abuse is reinforcing-that is repeated consumption increases preference. This has been shown in some studies to extend to other drugs of abuse; use of one increases preference for another. In particular, the present review deals with the interaction of nicotine and alcohol as it has been shown that smoking is a risk factor for alcoholism and alcohol use is a risk factor to become a smoker. The review discusses changes in the brain caused by chronic nicotine and chronic alcohol intake to approach the possible mechanisms by which one drug increases the preference for another. Chronic nicotine administration was shown to affect nicotine receptors in the brain, affecting not only receptor levels and distribution, but also receptor subunit composition, thus affecting affinity to nicotine. Other receptor systems are also affected among others catecholamine, glutamate, GABA levels and opiate and cannabinoid receptors. In addition to receptor systems and transmitters, there are endocrine, metabolic and neuropeptide changes as well induced by nicotine. Similarly chronic alcohol intake results in changes in the brain, in multiple receptors, transmitters and peptides as discussed in this overview and also illustrated in the tables. The changes are sex and age-dependent-some changes in males are different from those in females and in general adolescents are more sensitive to drug effects than adults. Although nicotine and alcohol interact-not all the changes induced by the combined intake of both are additive-some are opposing. These opposing effects include those on locomotion, acetylcholine metabolism, nicotine binding, opiate peptides, glutamate transporters and endocannabinoid content among others. The two compounds lower the negative withdrawal symptoms of each other which may contribute to the increase in preference, but the mechanism by which preference increases-most likely consists of multiple components that are not clear at the present time. As the details of induced changes of nicotine and alcohol differ, it is likely that the mechanisms of increasing nicotine preference may not be identical to that of increasing alcohol preference. Stimulation of preference of yet other drugs may again be different -representing one aspect of drug specificity of reward mechanisms. This article was published in Neurochem Res and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords