alexa Nipple discharge: current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

Journal of Cytology & Histology

Author(s): Sakorafas GH

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Abstract Nipple discharge is a complex diagnostic challenge for the clinician. A variety of diseases (such as intraductal papillomas, mammary duct ectasia, breast cancer, pituitary adenomas, breast abscesses/infections, etc.) can manifest as nipple discharge. The importance of nipple discharge for both the patient and the physician is the possible association of this condition with an underlying carcinoma. With heightened public awareness of breast cancer, an increasing number of women are asking their health care providers about nipple discharge. A detailed clinical evaluation is invaluable to determine the pathophysiology, assess the risk of malignancy, and plan treatment of the patient with nipple discharge. A combination of diagnostic tests, including mammography, breast ultrasonography, and possibly galactography can help the clinician to establish the diagnosis and plan proper management. Depending on the underlying breast pathology, a central or single lactiferous duct excision is the procedure of choice. Breast carcinoma associated with nipple discharge should be treated by either a modified radical mastectomy of breast-conservation therapy (i.e. duct-lobular segmentectomy with adequate, free margins [ideally>1cm], levels I and II axillary lymph node dissection, followed by breast irradiation). Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. This article was published in Cancer Treat Rev and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology

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