alexa Nitric oxide synthesis enhances human immunodeficiency virus replication in primary human macrophages.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

Author(s): Blond D, Raoul H, Le Grand R, Dormont D

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Abstract Macrophages are suspected to play a major role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection pathogenesis, not only by their contribution to virus dissemination and persistence in the host but also through the dysregulation of immune functions. The production of NO, a highly reactive free radical, is thought to act as an important component of the host immune response in several viral infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Ba-L replication on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and then examine the effects of NO production on the level of HIV-1 replication. Significant induction of the iNOS gene was observed in cultured MDM concomitantly with the peak of virus replication. However, this induction was not accompanied by a measurable production of NO, suggesting a weak synthesis of NO. Surprisingly, exposure to low concentrations of a NO-generating compound (sodium nitroprusside) and L-arginine, the natural substrate of iNOS, results in a significant increase in HIV replication. Accordingly, reduction of L-arginine bioavailability after addition of arginase to the medium significantly reduced HIV replication. The specific involvement of NO was further demonstrated by a dose-dependent inhibition of viral replication that was observed in infected macrophages exposed to N(G)-monomethyl L-arginine and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), two inhibitors of the iNOS. Moreover, an excess of L-arginine reversed the addition of L-NAME, confirming that an arginine-dependent mechanism is involved. Finally, inhibitory effects of hemoglobin which can trap free NO in culture supernatants and in biological fluids in vivo confirmed that endogenously produced NO could interfere with HIV replication in human macrophages.
This article was published in J Virol and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

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