Author(s): SayavedraSoto LA, Gvakharia B, Bottomley PJ, Arp DJ, Dolan ME
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Abstract The process of nitrification has the potential for the in situ bioremediation of halogenated compounds provided a number of challenges can be overcome. In nitrification, the microbial process where ammonia is oxidized to nitrate, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are key players and are capable of carrying out the biodegradation of recalcitrant halogenated compounds. Through industrial uses, halogenated compounds often find their way into wastewater, contaminating the environment and bodies of water that supply drinking water. In the reclamation of wastewater, halogenated compounds can be degraded by AOB but can also be detrimental to the process of nitrification. This minireview considers the ability of AOB to carry out cometabolism of halogenated compounds and the consequent inhibition of nitrification. Possible cometabolism monitoring methods that were derived from current information about AOB genomes are also discussed. AOB expression microarrays have detected mRNA of genes that are expressed at higher levels during stress and are deemed "sentinel" genes. Promoters of selected "sentinel" genes have been cloned and used to drive the expression of gene-reporter constructs. The latter are being tested as early warning biosensors of cometabolism-induced damage in Nitrosomonas europaea with promising results. These and other biosensors may help to preserve the tenuous balance that exists when nitrification occurs in waste streams containing alternative AOB substrates such as halogenated hydrocarbons.
This article was published in Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
and referenced in Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques