Author(s): Guo Z, Benten WP, Krcken J, Wunderlich F
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Abstract Steroid hormones exert genotropic actions through members of the nuclear receptor family. Here, we have demonstrated genotropic actions of testosterone that are independent of intracellular androgen receptors (iAR). Through plasma membrane androgen receptors (mAR), testosterone induces a rapid rise in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration of iAR-free murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. This nongenomic testosterone signaling, which is independent of both iAR and estrogen receptors, does not in itself activate either the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) families ERK1/2, p38, and JNK/SAPK, the stably and transiently transfected c-fos promoter, or NO production. In the context of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling, however, testosterone attenuates LPS activation of the c-fos promoter and NO production, which is abolished by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA. Testosterone also attenuates the LPS activation of p38 but not that of ERK1/2 and JNK/SAPK, and this attenuation is abrogated by BAPTA. Moreover, the p38 inhibitor, SB 203580, largely reduces LPS activation of the c-fos promoter and NO production, and the remaining levels are no longer regulated by testosterone. This study is the first to provide information on genotropic actions of mAR-mediated nongenomic testosterone Ca(2+) signaling by cross-talk with the LPS signaling pathway through p38 MAPK with impact on cell function.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science