Author(s): Lewis MA, Devereux R
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Abstract Impacts of human-related chemicals, either alone or in combination with other stressors, are important to understand to prevent and reverse continuing worldwide seagrass declines. This review summarizes reported concentrations of anthropogenic chemicals in grass bed-associated surface waters, sediments, and plant tissues and phytotoxic concentrations. Fate information in seagrass-rooted sediments and overlying water is most available for trace metals. Toxicity results in aqueous exposures are available for at least 13 species and a variety of trace metals, pesticides, and petrochemicals. In contrast, results for chemical mixtures and chemicals in sediment matrices are uncommon. Contaminant bioaccumulation information is available for at least 23 species. The effects of plant age, tissue type, and time of collection have been commonly reported but not biological significance of the chemical residues. Experimental conditions have varied considerably in seagrass contaminant research and interspecific differences in chemical residues and chemical tolerances are common, which limits generalizations and extrapolations among species and chemicals. The few reported risk assessments have been usually local and limited to a few single chemicals and species representative of the south Australian and Mediterranean floras. Media-specific information describing exposure concentrations, toxic effect levels, and critical body burdens of common near-shore contaminants is needed for most species to support integrated risk assessments at multiple geographical scales and to evaluate the ability of numerical effects-based criteria to protect these marine angiosperms at risk.
This article was published in Environ Toxicol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology