Author(s): Marchitti SA, Brocker C, Stagos D, Vasiliou V
Abstract Share this page
Abstract BACKGROUND: Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules. While several non-P450 enzyme systems participate in their metabolism, one of the most important is the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily, composed of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze aldehyde oxidation. OBJECTIVE: This article presents a review of what is currently known about each member of the human ALDH superfamily including the pathophysiological significance of these enzymes. METHODS: Relevant literature involving all members of the human ALDH family was extensively reviewed, with the primary focus on recent and novel findings. CONCLUSION: To date, 19 ALDH genes have been identified in the human genome and mutations in these genes and subsequent inborn errors in aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, type II hyperprolinemia, gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria and pyridoxine-dependent seizures. ALDH enzymes also play important roles in embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress and cancer. Finally, ALDH enzymes display multiple catalytic and non-catalytic functions including ester hydrolysis, antioxidant properties, xenobiotic bioactivation and UV light absorption.
This article was published in Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy