Author(s): Karpenko LI, Bazhan SI, Antonets DV, Belyakov IM, Karpenko LI, Bazhan SI, Antonets DV, Belyakov IM
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Abstract RV144 clinical trial was modestly effective in preventing HIV infection. New alternative approaches are needed to design improved HIV-1 vaccines and their delivery strategies. One of these approaches is construction of synthetic polyepitope HIV-1 immunogen using protective T- and B-cell epitopes that can induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and responses of cytotoxic (CD8(+) CTL) and helpers (CD4(+) Th) T-lymphocytes. This approach seems to be promising for designing of new generation of vaccines against HIV-1, enables in theory to cope with HIV-1 antigenic variability, focuses immune responses on protective determinants and enables to exclude from the vaccine compound that can induce autoantibodies or antibodies enhancing HIV-1 infectivity. Herein, the authors will focus on construction and rational design of polyepitope T-cell HIV-1 immunogens and their delivery, including: advantages and disadvantages of existing T-cell epitope prediction methods; features of organization of polyepitope immunogens, which can generate high-level CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte responses; the strategies to optimize efficient processing, presentation and immunogenicity of polyepitope constructs; original software to design polyepitope immunogens; and delivery vectors as well as mucosal strategies of vaccination. This new knowledge may bring us a one step closer to developing an effective T-cell vaccine against HIV-1, other chronic viral infections and cancer.
This article was published in Expert Rev Vaccines
and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology