Author(s): Hardinger KL, Brennan DC
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Excellent outcomes have been achieved in the field of renal transplantation. A significant reduction in acute rejection has been attained at many renal transplant centers using contemporary immunosuppressive, consisting of an induction agent, a calcineurin inhibitor, an antiproliferative agent plus or minus a corticosteroid. Despite improvements with these regimens, chronic allograft injury and adverse events still persist. The perfect immunosuppressive regimen would limit or eliminate calcineurin inhibitors and/or corticosteroid toxicity while providing enhanced allograft outcomes. Potential improvements to the calcineurin inhibitor class include a prolonged release tacrolimus formulation and voclosporin, a cyclosporine analog. Belatacept has shown promise as an agent to replace calcineurin inhibitors. A novel, fully-human anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, ASKP1240, is currently enrolling patients in phase 2 trials with calcineurin minimization and avoidance regimens. Another future goal of transplant immunosuppression is effective and safe treatment of allograft rejection. Novel treatments for antibody mediated rejection include bortezomib and eculizumab. Several investigational agents are no longer being pursed in transplantation including the induction agents, efalizumab and alefacept, and maintenance agents, sotrastaurin and tofacitinib. The purpose of this review is to consolidate the published evidence of the effectiveness and safety of investigational immunosuppressive agents in renal transplant recipients.
This article was published in World J Transplant
and referenced in Immunotherapy: Open Access