alexa Novel milrinone analogs of pyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives as promising cardiotonic agents.


Drug Designing: Open Access

Author(s): Bekhit AA, Baraka AM

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Abstract In an attempt to design new inotropic drugs for congestive heart failure (CHF) with less proarrhythmic potential, three series of compounds analogous to milrinone were prepared, namely, 4-aryl-6-(4-pyridyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles 2a-g, 4-aryl-6-(4-pyridyl)-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles 3a-g and 2-amino-4-aryl-6-(4-pyridyl)-pyridine-3-carbonitriles 4a-g. The first series was prepared by reacting 4-acetyl pyridine with the appropriate aldehyde, ethyl cyanoacetate and ammonium acetate in ethanol. Reaction of 2a-g with phosphorus pentasulfide afforded the second series 3a-g. The third target compounds 4a-g were prepared applying the same procedure used to synthesize 2a-g using malononitrile instead of ethyl cyanoacetate. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cardiotonic activity and their in vivo cardiovascular effects. In addition, their oral and parenteral acute toxicity were determined. Compounds 2a, 2b, 2c, 4c and 4f proved to exert cardiotonic activity comparable to that of milrinone using spontaneously beating atria model from reserpine-treated guinea pigs. In addition these compounds proved to be non-toxic and well tolerated by mice up to 250 mg kg(-1) orally and up to 125 mg kg(-1) through parenteral route. This article was published in Eur J Med Chem and referenced in Drug Designing: Open Access

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