Author(s): Hirotsu Y, Katsuoka F, Funayama R, Nagashima T, Nishida Y,
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Abstract NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that is critical for cellular defense against oxidative and xenobiotic insults. Nrf2 heterodimerizes with small Maf (sMaf) proteins and binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) to activate a battery of cytoprotective genes. However, it remains unclear to what extent the Nrf2-sMaf heterodimers contribute to ARE-dependent gene regulation on a genome-wide scale. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing and identified the binding sites of Nrf2 and MafG throughout the genome. Compared to sites occupied by Nrf2 alone, many sites co-occupied by Nrf2 and MafG exhibit high enrichment and are located in species-conserved genomic regions. The ARE motifs were significantly enriched among the recovered Nrf2-MafG-binding sites but not among the Nrf2-binding sites that did not display MafG binding. The majority of the Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective genes were found in the vicinity of Nrf2-MafG-binding sites. Additionally, sequences that regulate glucose metabolism and several amino acid transporters were identified as Nrf2-MafG target genes, suggesting diverse roles for the Nrf2-MafG heterodimer in stress response. These data clearly support the notion that Nrf2-sMaf heterodimers are complexes that regulate batteries of genes involved in various aspects of cytoprotective and metabolic functions through associated AREs.
This article was published in Nucleic Acids Res
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism