Author(s): Ding SY, Tigno XT, Hansen BC
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Abstract The lipid profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly characterized by increased levels of triglycerides and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, within each lipoprotein class, the changes are more complex. The present study defined the characteristics of dyslipidemia among nonhuman primates, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as well as the classic beta-quantification method, and examined the pattern of multiple lipoprotein fractions in relation to the main factors identified with the MetS. Seventy-three rhesus monkeys were classified into 3 groups: healthy monkeys, monkeys with MetS, and monkeys with T2DM. Characteristics of dyslipidemia in the MetS and T2DM groups included increased levels of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, and small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Reduced concentrations of large LDL and large HDL particles together with reduction of LDL and HDL particle sizes were also observed. Correlation analysis revealed that poor glycemic and lipid profiles, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance were associated with an atherogenic NMR profile. Compared with the conventional lipid panel, the NMR lipoprotein profile presented in greater detail distinctive differences between the dyslipidemia of the MetS and that of diabetes and demonstrated significant and divergent shifts in both particle size and number within lipoprotein classes between those 2 groups. Detailed lipoprotein profiling may provide additional indicators for more timely intervention. Rhesus monkeys are likely to provide an excellent model for novel drug testing designed to address the specific differences in lipoprotein fraction profile across these 3 groups that reflect the progression of pathophysiology from normal to overt diabetes.
This article was published in Metabolism
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism