Author(s): Christian S, Pilch J, Akerman ME, Porkka K, Laakkonen P,
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Abstract A tumor-homing peptide, F3, selectively binds to endothelial cells in tumor blood vessels and to tumor cells. Here, we show that the cell surface molecule recognized by F3 is nucleolin. Nucleolin specifically bound to an F3 peptide affinity matrix from extracts of cultured breast carcinoma cells. Antibodies and cell surface biotin labeling revealed nucleolin at the surface of actively growing cells, and these cells bound and internalized fluorescein-conjugated F3 peptide, transporting it into the nucleus. In contrast, nucleolin was exclusively nuclear in serum-starved cells, and F3 did not bind to these cells. The binding and subsequent internalization of F3 were blocked by an antinucleolin antibody. Like the F3 peptide, intravenously injected antinucleolin antibodies selectively accumulated in tumor vessels and in angiogenic vessels of implanted "matrigel" plugs. These results show that cell surface nucleolin is a specific marker of angiogenic endothelial cells within the vasculature. It may be a useful target molecule for diagnostic tests and drug delivery applications.
This article was published in J Cell Biol
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology