alexa Nucleotides released by apoptotic cells act as a find-me signal to promote phagocytic clearance.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Author(s): Elliott MR, Chekeni FB, Trampont PC, Lazarowski ER, Kadl A,

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells occurs efficiently in vivo such that even in tissues with significant apoptosis, very few apoptotic cells are detectable. This is thought to be due to the release of 'find-me' signals by apoptotic cells that recruit motile phagocytes such as monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells, leading to the prompt clearance of the dying cells. However, the identity and in vivo relevance of such find-me signals are not well understood. Here, through several lines of evidence, we identify extracellular nucleotides as a critical apoptotic cell find-me signal. We demonstrate the caspase-dependent release of ATP and UTP (in equimolar quantities) during the early stages of apoptosis by primary thymocytes and cell lines. Purified nucleotides at these concentrations were sufficient to induce monocyte recruitment comparable to that of apoptotic cell supernatants. Enzymatic removal of ATP and UTP (by apyrase or the expression of ectopic CD39) abrogated the ability of apoptotic cell supernatants to recruit monocytes in vitro and in vivo. We then identified the ATP/UTP receptor P2Y(2) as a critical sensor of nucleotides released by apoptotic cells using RNA interference-mediated depletion studies in monocytes, and macrophages from P2Y(2)-null mice. The relevance of nucleotides in apoptotic cell clearance in vivo was revealed by two approaches. First, in a murine air-pouch model, apoptotic cell supernatants induced a threefold greater recruitment of monocytes and macrophages than supernatants from healthy cells did; this recruitment was abolished by depletion of nucleotides and was significantly decreased in P2Y(2)(-/-) (also known as P2ry2(-/-)) mice. Second, clearance of apoptotic thymocytes was significantly impaired by either depletion of nucleotides or interference with P2Y receptor function (by pharmacological inhibition or in P2Y(2)(-/-) mice). These results identify nucleotides as a critical find-me cue released by apoptotic cells to promote P2Y(2)-dependent recruitment of phagocytes, and provide evidence for a clear relationship between a find-me signal and efficient corpse clearance in vivo.
This article was published in Nature and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords