Author(s): SHitzer A, Stroschein LA, Vital P, Gonzalez RR, Pandolf KB
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Abstract A model of the thermal behavior of an extremity, e.g., a finger, is presented. The model includes the effects of heat conduction, metabolic heat generation, heat transport by blood perfusion, heat exchange between the tissue and the large blood vessels, and arterio-venous heat exchange. Heat exchange with the environment through a layer of thermal insulation, depicting thermal handwear, is also considered. The tissue is subdivided into four concentric layers simulating, from the center outward, core, muscle, fat, and skin. Differential heat balance equations are formulated for the tissue and for the major artery and the major vein traversing the finger. These coupled equations are solved numerically by a finite-difference, alternating direction method employing a Thomas algorithm. The numerical scheme was extensively tested for its stability and convergence. This paper presents the model equations and results of the convergence tests, and shows plots of blood and tissue temperatures along the axis of the model for combinations of parameters including the effect of countercurrent heat exchange between the artery and the vein.
This article was published in J Biomech Eng
and referenced in Journal of Applied Mechanical Engineering