Author(s): Inzoli F, Migliavacca F, Pennati G
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Abstract Intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis have a predominant role in the failure of coronary artery bypass procedures. Theoretical studies and in vivo observations have shown that these pathologies are much more likely to occur in the proximity of end-to-side anastomosis, thus indicating that fluid dynamic conditions may be included in the pathogenic causes of the initiation, progression and complication of intimal hyperplasia. In order to study the fluid dynamics at the anastomosis of an aortocoronary bypass, a three-dimensional mathematical model based on a FEM approach was developed. Steady-state simulations were studied in two different geometrical models of anastomosis which differ in their insertion angles (45 and 60 degree). Flow fields with three-dimensional helical patterns, secondary flows, and shear stresses were also investigated. The results show the presence of low shear stresses on the top wall just beyond the toe of the anastomosis and in the region of the coronary artery before the junction. A high wall shear stress region is present on the lateral wall of the coronary artery immediately downstream from the anastomosis. The influence of flow rate distribution on the secondary flows is also illustrated. These results confirm the sensitivity of flow behavior to the model's geometrical parameters and enhance the importance of reproducing the anastomosis junction as closely as possible in order to evaluate the effective shear stress distribution.
This article was published in J Biomech Eng
and referenced in Journal of Forensic Biomechanics