Author(s): Brinkman M, Zeegers MP
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Abstract Bladder cancer is a major health concern for older males in Western populations. About 30 years ago there was a suggestion that nutrition may have a role in the aetiology of the disease. Although the literature has been accumulating since then, owing to heterogeneity between studies results have often been inconsistent and unclear. The aim of this paper was to present an updated summary of the scientific evidence on the association between nutrition, total fluid intake and bladder cancer. A search of computerized databases, PubMed, ISI, Embase and Cochrane Library, was conducted to identify all epidemiological studies published between 1966 and October 2007. The level of scientific evidence for the various nutritional factors and total fluid intake was ranked according to the number of studies reporting a statistically significant association and the existence of mechanistic evidence. The levels of association were based on a ranking of statistically significant relative risks. Fruit and yellow-orange vegetables, particularly carrots and selenium, are probably associated with a moderately reduced risk of bladder cancer. Citrus fruits and cruciferous vegetables were also identified as having a possible protective effect. Possible risk factors are salted and barbecued meat, pork, total fat, pickled vegetables, salt, soy products, spices and artificial sweeteners. No clear association could be determined for beef, eggs, processed meats and total fluid intake. In conclusion, specific fruit and vegetables may act to reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Future studies on bladder cancer should investigate the effect of food categorization, amount and gender.
This article was published in Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl
and referenced in Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis