Author(s): Lam JC, Sharma SK, Lam B
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Abstract Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly being recognized as an important health issue in the last two to three decades. It is characterized by frequent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep, causing recurrent arousals, intermittent hypoxaemia, sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality. There is accumulating evidence that OSA is being considered as an independent risk factor for hypertension, glucose intolerance / diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and stroke, leading to increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. The prevalence rates of OSA have been estimated in the range of 2 to 10 per cent worldwide, and the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea include advanced age, male sex, obesity, family history, craniofacial abnormalities, smoking and alcohol consumption. The common clinical presenting symptoms are heavy snoring, witnessed apnoeas and daytime hypersomnolence, which would help to identify the affected individuals. With increasing awareness of this disease entity and associated complications in our society, there have been increased referrals to sleep physicians or expertise for further investigations and diagnostic evaluation. Early recognition and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea may prevent from adverse health consequences. Some of the epidemiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnoea in adults are reviewed.
This article was published in Indian J Med Res
and referenced in Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy