alexa Occurrence and risk factors for apathy in Parkinson disease: a 4-year prospective longitudinal study.
Neurology

Neurology

Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism

Author(s): Pedersen KF, Alves G, Aarsland D, Larsen JP

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Apathy is a common but under-recognised behavioural disorder associated with depression and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). However, the longitudinal course of apathy in PD has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine the occurrence of and risk factors for apathy over time in a representative sample of patients with PD. METHODS: A sample of 139 patients was drawn from a population-based prevalence study of PD in Rogaland County, Western Norway. Apathy was measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, using a composite score >or=4 to indicate clinically significant apathy. Additional measurements included standardised rating scales for parkinsonism, depression and cognitive impairment. A follow-up evaluation was carried out in 79 patients (78.2\% of the survivors) 4 years later. RESULTS: Of the 79 patients included in this study, 29 patients (36.7\%) had never had apathy, 11 (13.9\%) had persistent apathy, and a further 39 (49.4\%) developed apathy during follow-up. At follow-up, patients with apathy were more frequently depressed and demented than never-apathetic patients. Dementia at baseline and a more rapid decline in speech and axial impairment during follow-up were independent risk factors for incident apathy. CONCLUSIONS: Apathy is a persistent behavioural feature in PD with a high incidence and prevalence over time. Progression of motor signs predominantly mediated by non-dopaminergic systems may be a useful preclinical marker for incident apathy in PD. This article was published in J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry and referenced in Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism

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