Author(s): Biswas J, Madhavan HN, George AE, Kumarasamy N, Solomon S
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Abstract PURPOSE: To document the ocular disorders seen in patients known to be infected with human immunodeficiency (HIV) virus at a referral eye clinic in India. METHODS: The first 100 individuals known to be HIV-positive at a referral eye clinic between 1993 and 1998 were enrolled in a prospective study. They underwent complete ocular and systemic evaluation. RESULTS: Most of the patients (76\%) were in the 20-to 40-year age group. Heterosexual exposure to commercial sex workers was the most common risk factor (70\%) for HIV infection. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (17\%) and HIV retinopathy (15\%) were the most common HIV-associated ophthalmic lesions. Pulmonary tuberculosis (67\%) and oropharyngeal candidiasis (66\%) were the most commonly associated systemic infections. Ocular involvement was most common in children who contracted the disease through perinatal transmission (66.7\%) and in homosexual patients (60\%). Ocular involvement was comparatively less common in patients who contracted the disease through blood transfusions (33\%) or exposure to commercial sex workers (24.3\%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the spectrum of ocular lesions associated with HIV infection in India is different from that seen elsewhere in the world. The prevalence of CMV retinitis and HIV retinopathy is lower in India, and there have been no cases of ocular Kaposi sarcoma. Adnexal infections, albeit rare, were seen in our series. The nonavailability and cost of therapy influenced the visual prognosis in these patients.
This article was published in Am J Ophthalmol
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research