alexa Of the renin-angiotensin system and reactive oxygen species Type 2 diabetes and angiotensin II inhibition.
Cardiology

Cardiology

Journal of Hypertension: Open Access

Author(s): Leiter LA, Lewanczuk RZ

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing worldwide at an explosive rate. This "epidemic" is largely driven by a concomitant obesity epidemic, which is seen not only in affluent countries, but in industrializing countries as well, concomitant with the rapid change toward Western life-style patterns worldwide. Recent clinical trials such as Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE), Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction (LIFE), and Study of Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE) have indicated that blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This effect may be explained by a variety of diabetogenic factors, which seem to be moderated by angiotensin II, such as free fatty acids (FFA) and the phenomena of adipocyte differentiation, as well as inflammation and oxidative damage. Insulin resistance, usually present in cases of impaired glucose tolerance, is the major identifiable defect in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Elevated FFA levels result in reduced activation of phosphoinositol-3 kinase, an enzyme that is essential for normal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. This reduction is potentiated by angiotensin II and consequently insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is improved by RAS inhibition. Furthermore, blockade of the angiotensin II AT(1)-receptor has been shown to stimulate the differentiation of adipocytes that store FFAs, which leads to reduced plasma FFA levels and decreased insulin resistance. There are also data suggesting that AT(1)-receptor blockade reduces inflammatory activation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a major factor in the pathophysiology of diabetes and a major cardiovascular risk factor. Both proinflammatory molecules and ROS increase the risk of insulin resistance and atherogenesis. It is thought that FFAs and hyperglycemia increase ROS production and oxidative stress, leading to the activation of signaling molecules such as nuclear factor kappa-B and other mediators of stress-sensitive pathways, which increases insulin resistance and will lead to beta-cell dysfunction and diabetic complications during the longer term. Inhibiting the RAS seems to have an effect on several steps in this cascade. There is an obvious need for large-scale clinical trials specifically designed to assess the protective benefits of blocking the RAS in individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Two such trials on the prevention of type 2 diabetes are ongoing, the Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medications (DREAM) study and the more ambitious Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial, which is also assessing prevention of cardiovascular events. This article was published in Am J Hypertens and referenced in Journal of Hypertension: Open Access

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Flavia Secco Tavares de Souza
    A Comparative Study Among Elective Conventional Surgery, Urgency/Emergency Conventional Approaching and Elective Videolaparoscopic Surgery on the Treatment of Hospitalized Patients at First Surgeric Clinic of Federal Hospital of Bonsucesso with a Diagnostic of Colorectal adenocarcinoma, between January 2010 and December 2012
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Veronica Vicente
    Randomized controlled trial of a prehospital decision system by emergency medical services to ensure optimal treatment for older adults in Sweden
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Lourdes Cortes-Dericks
    ALDHhigh/CD44+ putative cancer stem cell population as therapeutic target in malignant pleural mesothelioma
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • George Schroeder
    Emergency Medical Management of Scorpionfish, Stonefish and Lionfish Envenomation
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Michele I. Bracken
    Experiences of Emergency Department Nurses with a Lethality Tool
    PPT Version | PDF Version

Recommended Conferences

  • International Conference on Hypertension
    October 30-31, 2017 Atlanta USA
Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords