Author(s): Hoque M, Dave S, Gupta P, Saleemuddin M
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Abstract A chance discovery of the tumoricidal action of a human milk fraction led to the characterization of the active component as oleic acid complex of the α-lactalbumin, which was given the acronym HAMLET. We report in this study that the oleic acid complex of bovine α-lactalbumin (BAMLET) is hemolytic to human erythrocytes as well as to those derived from some other mammals. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis suggested binding of BAMLET to erythrocytes prior to induction of hemolysis. Free OA was hemolytic albeit at higher concentrations, while sodium oleate caused hemolysis at far lower concentrations. Amiloride and BaCl2 offered protection against BAMLET-induced hemolysis suggesting the involvement of a cation leak channel in the process. BAMLET coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose was not only hemolytic but also tumoricidal to Jurkat and MCF-7 cells in culture. The Sepharose-linked preparation was however not toxic to non-cancerous peritoneal macrophages and primary adipocytes. The tumoricidal action was studied using the MTT-assay while apoptosis induction measured by the annexin V-propidium iodide assay. Repeated incubation of the immobilized BAMLET with erythrocytes depleted oleic acid and decreased the hemolytic activity of the complex. Incubation of MCF-7 and Jurkat cells with OA, soluble or immobilized BAMLET resulted in increase in the uptake of Lyso Tracker Red and Nile red by the cells. The data presented support the contention that oleic acid plays the key role, both in BAMLET-induced hemolysis and tumoricidal action.
This article was published in PLoS One
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology