Author(s): Visser BC, Parks RW, Garden OJ
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Abstract Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has all but replaced the traditional open approach. Hence open cholecystectomy (OC) is principally reserved for cases in which laparoscopy fails, leaving fewer surgeons with experience in the procedure required for the most challenging cases. This review of OC includes discussion of the indications for a primary open approach, conversion from laparoscopy, technical aspects of OC, and alternatives (cholecystostomy and subtotal cholecystectomy). Strategies for safe OC must be formally addressed in residency programs.
This article was published in Am J Surg
and referenced in Journal of Ergonomics