Author(s): Kavitha K, Venuvanalingam P
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Abstract [reactions: see text] 1,3-Dipolar additions of C60 with dipoles, diazomethane, nitrile oxide, and nitrone have been modeled at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)//AM1 level, and their mechanism, regiochemistry, and nature of addition are investigated. All of these reactions lead to the formation of fullerene fused heterocycles; theoretically, these reactions can take up four types of additions, viz., closed [6,6], open [5,6], closed [5,6], and open [6,6] additions, and all of them have been examined. Energetics and thermodynamic analysis of these reactions show that closed [5,6] and open [6,6] additions are not probable and that closed [6,6] additions are the most favored ones and follow a concerted mechanism. Experimental evidence that C60-diazomethane reactions yielded closed [6,6] fullerenopyrazoline provides good support to the theoretical predictions. The observed order of reactivity has been explained based on the double bond character, forcing double bonds in the pentagons of C60, and strain. During the addition, dipoles distort more than C60 and concerted closed [6,6] TSs are found to be more reactant-like or early TS. Inclusion of toluene as solvent through the PCM model increases the reaction rate and exothermicity. NICS values computed at the centers of the reacting benzenoid ring of fullerene clearly reveal, in both open and closed additions, the loss in them of aromaticity during the reaction.
This article was published in J Org Chem
and referenced in Journal of Theoretical and Computational Science