Author(s): Tannast M, Siebenrock KA
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: Anatomic reduction and stable fixation by means of tissue- preserving surgical approaches. INDICATIONS Displaced acetabular fractures. Surgical hip dislocation approach with larger displacement of the posterior column in comparison to the anterior column, transtectal fractures, additional intraarticular fragments, marginal impaction. Stoppa approach with larger displacement of the anterior column in comparison to the posterior column. A combined approach might be necessary with difficult reduction. CONTRAINDICATIONS Fractures > 15 days (then ilioinguinal or extended iliofemoral approaches). Suprapubic catheters and abdominal problems (e.g., previous laparotomy due to visceral injuries) with Stoppa approach (then switch to classic ilioinguinal approach). SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: Surgical hip dislocation: lateral decubitus position. Straight lateral incision centered over the greater trochanter. Entering of the Gibson interval. Digastric trochanteric osteotomy with protection of the medial circumflex femoral artery. Opening of the interval between the piriformis and the gluteus minimus muscle. Z-shaped capsulotomy. Dislocation of the femoral head. Reduction and fixation of the posterior column with plate and screws. Fixation of the anterior column with a lag screw in direction of the superior pubic ramus. Stoppa approach: supine position. Incision according to Pfannenstiel. Longitudinal splitting of the anterior portion of the rectus sheet and the rectus abdominis muscle. Blunt dissection of the space of Retzius. Ligation of the corona mortis, if present. Blunt dissection of the quadrilateral plate and the anterior column. Reduction of the anterior column and fixation with a reconstruction plate. Fixation of the posterior column with lag screws. If necessary, the first window of the ilioinguinal approach can be used for reduction and fixation of the posterior column. POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: During hospital stay, intensive mobilization of the hip joint using a continuous passive motion machine with a maximum flexion of 90 degrees . No active abduction and passive adduction over the body's midline, if a surgical dislocation was performed. Maximum weight bearing 10-15 kg for 8 weeks. Then, first clinical and radiographic follow-up. Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis for 8 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: 17 patients with a mean follow-up of 3.2 years. Ten patients were operated via surgical hip dislocation, two patients with a Stoppa approach, and five using a combined or alternative approach. Anatomic reduction was achieved in ten of the twelve patients (83\%) without primary total hip arthroplasty. Mean operation time 3.3 h for surgical hip dislocation and 4.2 h for the Stoppa approach. Complications comprised one delayed trochanteric union, one heterotopic ossification, and one loss of reduction. There were no cases of avascular necrosis. In two patients, a total hip arthroplasty was performed due to the development of secondary hip osteoarthritis.
This article was published in Oper Orthop Traumatol
and referenced in Journal of Trauma & Treatment