Author(s): Ho FM, Liu SH, Lin WW, Liau CS
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Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and causes multiple cardiovascular complications. Although high glucose can induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), its inhibitors and cell apoptosis, little is known about the roles of MMPs in regulating cell apoptosis in response to high glucose. To address this issue, we elucidated the relationship between MMPs, its inhibitors and cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were treated with medium containing 5.5 mM or 33 mM of glucose in the presence or the absence of ascorbic acid and MMP inhibitors (GM6001 and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2). For detection of cell apoptosis, the cell death detection ELISA assay was used. The results revealed that high glucose-induced apoptosis could be suppressed by ascorbic acid, GM6001 and TIMP-2, but not by TIMP-1. The activities of MMP-2, MMP-9 and its inhibitors, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 after high glucose treatment, were also detected by ELISA method. We found that the activated form of MMP-2, but not MMP-9, was increased, while the level of TIMP-2, but not TIMP-1, was decreased. In Western blot and RT-PCR analysis, the expression of TIMP-2, but not TIMP-1, after high glucose treatment was downregulated, whereas the levels of MMP-2 and -9 proteins and mRNA were not changed. The present study indicated that oxidative stress induced by high glucose might be involved in the opposite effects on MMP-2 activation and TIMP-2 downregulation. This reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent MMP-2 activation in turn mediates high glucose-induced cell apoptosis in HUVECs.
This article was published in J Cell Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science