Author(s): Horner AA, Takabayashi K, Beck L, Sharma B, Zubeldia J,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has gradually fallen out of favor for the treatment of many allergic diseases because of the overall convenience, safety, and efficacy of medications. However, investigations suggest that allergen/immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotide (ISS-ODN) conjugates (AICs) might have improved safety and efficacy compared with allergen extracts. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether changes in the ISS-ODN conjugation ratio would effect the immunogenicity and allergenicity of AIC. METHODS: Immunogenicity was determined by means of AIC vaccination of mice, followed by analysis of antigen-specific antibody and cytokine responses. The allergenicity of AIC was determined in mast cell release studies and in murine models of anaphylaxis and the Arthus reaction. RESULTS: AIC induced a stronger immune response than allergen alone or allergen mixed with ISS-ODN, but higher-level ISS-ODN conjugation reduced its immunogenicity modestly. In mast cell degranulation studies AIC was approximately 100-fold less allergenic than native allergen, with stepwise increases in the ODN conjugation ratio leading to stepwise decreases in allergenicity. In anaphylaxis studies death rates were reduced from 100\% with native allergen challenge to as low as 0\% with high-ratio ISS-ODN AIC challenge. Similar results were obtained in an Arthus reaction model. CONCLUSION: These investigations establish that AIC is both significantly more immunogenic and less allergenic than native allergens and the techniques used might have further utility for the standardization and optimization of AIC formulations for use in allergic patients.
This article was published in J Allergy Clin Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Developing Drugs