Author(s): Sharma G, Pai KM, Setty S, Ramapuram JT, Nagpal A, Sharma G, Pai KM, Setty S, Ramapuram JT, Nagpal A
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Abstract The objectives of the study are to evaluate the relationship between common HIV-related oral lesions and absolute CD4+ count, age, gender, and medication used and to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of oral manifestations for low absolute CD4+ counts. HIV-positive patients, 200, from south India were selected, whose absolute CD4+ counts were determined within 2 weeks of oral examination. Sociodemographic data was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Oral manifestations were diagnosed according to presumptive criteria of EEC-clearinghouse classification (1993). Four or more concurrent oral lesions were statistically significant with low CD4+ counts <200 cells/mm3 (P = 0.005). The highest and lowest mean CD4+ cell counts were seen in individuals with linear gingival erythema (LGE; 172.5 cells/mm(3)) and pseudomembranous candidiasis (PC; 87 cells/mm(3)), respectively. Smoking, age (<35 years), and males had a positive association with oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL; P < 0.05). Patients with CD4+ counts < 200 cells/mm(3) were associated with 15 times greater risk of PC and four times at greater risk for occurrence of any oral manifestation. Concurrent oral manifestations (>or=4) were good predictors (80-100\%) of severe immune suppression. In most resource poor countries where facilities for undertaking CD4+ counts are not available, the presence of concurrent oral manifestations may be used as an indicator of deteriorating immune status.
This article was published in Clin Oral Investig
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research