alexa Organoclay formulations of acetochlor: effect of high salt concentration.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

Author(s): ElNahhal Y, Lagaly G, Rabinovitz O, ElNahhal Y, Lagaly G, Rabinovitz O

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Abstract This study aimed to evaluate new methodology for designing ecologically acceptable formulations of acetochlor. Modification of montmorillonite with phenyltrimethylammonium chloride (PTMA) or benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMA) and organoclay formulations of acetochlor were prepared in the presence of high concentrations of sodium chloride (150 g/L). Acetochlor concentration in the equilibrium solutions was determined by HPLC. Release of acetochlor in a water system was performed by a funnel experiment. Leaching of acetochlor in soil was determined by a bioassay using a column technique and Setaria viridis as a test plant. The adsorbed amounts of acetochlor on montmorillonite exchanged by PTMA or BTMA were increased as NaCl concentration increased in the equilibrium solution. Leaching of acetochlor from organoclay formulations was significantly inhibited to the top soil layer (0-5 cm) when the formulations were prepared at extreme NaCl concentration (100-150 g/L). These results are in accord with a funnel experiment that showed a reduction in acetochlor release from the montmorillonite-based formulations. The application of this method for herbicide formulation would produce ecologically acceptable herbicide formulations that can significantly minimize the risk to groundwater pollution. This article was published in J Agric Food Chem and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

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