Author(s): Iliev Y, Andonova S, Akabaliev V, Iliev Y, Andonova S, Akabaliev V
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed at investigating phalloid mushroom poisoning and the toxicological aid services in Plovdiv region as this pathology shows in this country high mortality rate (40-100\%) and increasing incidence; it is difficult to diagnose and is far from featuring adequately in the literature in our country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A caseload of 270 patients with mushroom poisoning from Plovdiv region, Bulgaria, admitted for treatment to the Clinic of Toxicology, Higher Medical Institute, Plovdiv, for the period 1991-1998 was studied. Of these 270 patients 25 (9.26\%) had an acute phalloid poisoning. The following indicators were registered: gender, age, reported type of consumed mushrooms, time of appearance of the first complaints after the mushroom consumption, time of medical aid, disease outcome. The diagnosis and the applied treatment was based on our own diagnostic-therapeutic protocol for phalloid intoxication. RESULTS: All phalloid poisoning cases were accidental by character. The most frequently reported type of ingested mushroom was unidentified wild edible mushrooms. Of all the patients males were 56\%, females--44\% with mean age of 47.71 years (SD = 17.53). From 25 phalloid poisoning cases 15 survived (60\%), 10 died (40\%). The summer-fall seasonal pattern of phalloid poisoning occurrence was apparent. The mean duration of the latency period was 12 hours (SD--6.66). In 4 (16\%) patients the disease exhibited an unusually early onset--up to 2 hours after the mushroom ingestion. The mean time period from the mushroom ingestion to the presentation in a medical institution for first medical aid was 32 hours (SD--21.69), for men--27.59 hours, for women--43.75 hours. Almost one third (32\%) of the diseased presented for medical help more than 36 hours after the poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: The acute mushroom poisoning cases in adults comprise 7.01\% of the total acute poisoning caseload. The phalloid poisoning accounts for 9.26\% of the total number of patients with mushroom poisoning admitted for treatment. The application of contemporary diagnostic-therapeutic protocol lowers the hospital lethality rate from phalloid poisoning to 40\%. There were no statistically significant differences in the compared parameters between the subgroups of patients with favorable and lethal outcome and between the subgroups of men and women--most probably due to the small sample. In order to lower the incidence and mortality rate from phalloid mushroom poisoning the authors recommend preventive health education on the problem, targeting the population at risk and the introduction of contemporary diagnostic and treatment methods--determining the amatoxins, intravenous application of Silibinin and liver transplantation.
This article was published in Folia Med (Plovdiv)
and referenced in Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology