Author(s): Shand AW, Bell JC, McElduff A, Morris J, Roberts CL
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Abstract AIM: To determine population-based rates and outcomes of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (pre-GDM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnancy. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, using linked population databases, of all women, and their infants, discharged from hospital following birth in New South Wales (NSW) between 1 July 1998 and 31 December 2002. Women with, and infants exposed to pre-GDM or GDM were compared with those without diabetes mellitus for pregnancy characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: Women with a singleton pregnancy (n = 370,703) and their infants were included: 1248 women (0.3\%) had pre-GDM and 17,128 (4.5\%) had GDM. Of those women with pre-GDM, 57\% had Type 1 diabetes, 20\% had Type 2 diabetes and for 23\% the type of diabetes was unknown. Major maternal morbidity or mortality was more common in women with pre-GDM (7.9\%) [odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95\% confidence interval (CI) 2.6, 3.9] and in women with GDM (3.1\%) (OR 1.2, 95\% CI 1.1, 1.4) when compared with women without diabetes (2.6\%). Major infant morbidity or mortality occurred more frequently in infants exposed to pre-GDM compared with no diabetes (13.6\% vs. 3.1\%) (OR 5.0, 95\% CI 4.2, 5.8) and in infants exposed to GDM compared with no diabetes (3.2\% vs. 2.3\%) (OR 1.4, 95\% CI 1.3, 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-GDM and GDM continue to be associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes; however, women with GDM have adverse outcomes less frequently. Rates of GDM and pre-GDM appear to be increasing over time. Clinicians should consider the potential for adverse outcomes, and arrange referral to appropriate services.
This article was published in Diabet Med
and referenced in Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences