Author(s): Nataatmadja M, West J, West M
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS), a condition caused by fibrillin-1 gene mutation is associated with aortic aneurysm that shows elastic lamellae disruption, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis with minimal inflammatory response. We examined aneurysm tissue and cultured cells for expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 to -beta3 (TGFbeta1 to 3), hyaluronan content, apoptosis, markers of cell migration, and infiltration of vascular progenitor cells (CD34). METHODS AND RESULTS: MFS aortic aneurysm (6 males, 5 females; age 8 to 78 years) and normal aorta (5 males, 3 females; age 22 to 56 years) were used. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of TGFbeta1 to 3, hyaluronan, and CD34-positive microcapillaries in MFS aneurysm compared with control. There was increased expression of TGFbeta1 to 3 and hyaluronan in MFS cultured VSMCs, adventitial fibroblasts (AF), and skin fibroblasts (SF). Apoptosis was increased in MFS (VSMC: mean cell loss in MFS 29\%, n of subjects=5, versus control 8\%, n=3, P<0.05; AF: 28\%, n=5 versus 7\%, n=5, P<0.05; SF: 29\%, n=3 versus 4\%, n=3, not significant). In MFS, there was a 2-fold increase in adventitial microcapillaries containing CD34-positive cells compared with control tissue. Scratch wound assay showed absence of CD44, MT1-MMP, and beta-3 integrin at the leading edge of migration in MFS indicating altered directional migration. Western blot showed increased expression of TGFbeta1 to 3 in MFS but no change in expression of CD44, MT1-MMP, or beta-3 integrin compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: There was overexpression of TGF-beta in MFS associated with altered hyaluronan synthesis, increased apoptosis, impaired progenitor cell recruitment, and abnormal directional migration. These factors limit tissue repair and are likely to contribute to aneurysm development.
This article was published in Circulation
and referenced in Cardiovascular Therapy: Open Access