Author(s): Riess JG
Abstract Share this page
Abstract The development of fluorocarbon-based oxygen carriers has experienced rapid progress over the past few years. Fluosol has been approved for use during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for high-risk patients. Its clinical evaluation is being pursued as an adjunct to cancer therapy and for treatment of myocardial infarction in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy. O2-delivery efficacy has been achieved with the development of the new highly concentrated (4 to 5 times more concentrated than Fluosol), fluid, emulsions of perfluorooctyl bromide (perflubron), trade-named Oxygen. The stability of fluorocarbon emulsions has also improved considerably and the new emulsions can be stored unfrozen and are ready for use. The side-effect profile of these emulsions has been characterized as being the normal response of the body's phagocytes to the injection of particles, a response that is considered physiological rather than pathological in nature; it involves some products of arachidonic acid metabolism and can be controlled pharmacologically. Means of further stabilizing fluorocarbon emulsions, involving molecular-diffusion-controlling additives or fluorinated surfactants, including mixed fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon compounds, have been devised. Increased control over in vivo particle recognition, intravascular persistence and side effects, and at adapting emulsion characteristics to specific applications, is being investigated. The range of therapeutic applications is expanding. The concentrated emulsions will be able to serve as a temporary red blood cell substitute in many situations. Acute normovolemic hemodilution with fluorocarbon emulsions, used in conjunction with homologous predonation and other blood-sparing techniques, should afford greater flexibility, increase the margin of safety, and reduce or alleviate the need for autologous blood transfusion during surgical procedures. Fluorocarbon applications in the cardiovascular field include use during PTCA, for cardioplegia and reperfusion, and the treatment of myocardial infarction. Significant tumor growth delay has been achieved when concentrated emulsions are used in conjunction with cancer radio- or chemotherapy. Liquid ventilation has potential as a unique treatment for the adult and infant respiratory distress syndromes and for drug delivery. The radiopaque and versatile perflubron can also be used in contrast agents for diagnosis with computed X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, allowing the early detection and staging of cancer. Other potential applications investigated include the treatment of cerebral ischemia, organ and limb preservation, use as a tamponade during retinal repair, etc.
This article was published in Biomater Artif Cells Immobilization Biotechnol
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta