Author(s): Lipsky JJ, Shen ML, Naylor S
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Abstract Disulfiram (DSF) has found extensive use in the aversion therapy treatment of recovering alcoholics. It is known that DSF or a metabolite irreversibly inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). However, the actual mechanism of inhibition is still not known. In this work we describe the in vitro interactions of DSF, as well as a principal metabolite S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamoyl sulfoxide (MeDTC-SO), with both recombinant rat liver mitochondrial monomeric ALDH (rmALDH) and homotetrameric rmALDH. We show that DSF directly inhibits rmALDH (IC(50)=36.4 microM) by inducing the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. We also demonstrate by HPLC-MS analysis of a Glu-C digest of DSF-treated rmALDH that the intramolecular disulfide bridge formed involves two of the three cysteines located at the active site of the enzyme. Using a combination of HPLC-MS and HPLC-MS/MS, we further show that the electrophilic metabolite MeDTC-SO also inhibits rmALDH (IC(50)=4.62 microM). We isolate and identify a carbamoylated peptide at Cys(302) with the sequence FNQGQC(301)C(302)C(303). Hence we show that MeDTC-SO exhibits its inhibitory effect by covalently modifying the -SH side-chain of Cys(302), present at the active site rmALDH. Finally we show using SEC-MS that both DSF and MeDTC-SO do not prevent formation of the homotetramer of rmALDH, but inhibit the enzyme by acting directly at the active site of specific monomers of rmALDH.
This article was published in Chem Biol Interact
and referenced in Chemotherapy: Open Access