alexa Oxaliplatin: a review of preclinical and clinical studies.


Journal of Integrative Oncology

Author(s): Raymond E, Chaney SG, Taamma A, Cvitkovic E

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Abstract Of the new generation platinum compounds that have been evaluated, those with the 1,2-diaminocyclohexane carrier ligand-including oxaliplatin--have been focused upon in recent years. Molecular biology studies and the National Cancer Institute in vitro cytotoxic screening showed that diaminocyclohexane platinums such as oxaliplatin belong to a distinct cytotoxic family, differing from cisplatin and carboplatin, with specific intracellular target(s), mechanism(s) of action and/or mechanism(s) of resistance. In phase I trials, the dose-limiting toxicity of oxaliplatin was characterized by transient acute dysesthesias and cumulative distal neurotoxicity, which was reversible within a few months after treatment discontinuation. Moreover, oxaliplatin did not display any, auditory, renal and hematologic dose-limiting toxicity at the recommended dose of 130 mg/m2 q three weeks or 85 mg/m2 q two weeks given as a two-hour i.v. infusion. Clinical phase II experiences on the antitumoral activity of oxaliplatin have been conducted in hundreds of patients with advanced colorectal cancers (ACRC). Single agent activity reported as objective response rate in ACRC patients is 10\% and 20\% overall in ACRC patients with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) pretreated/refractory and previously untreated ACRC, respectively. Synergistic cytotoxic effects in preclinical studies with thymidylate synthase inhibitors, cisplatin/carboplatin and topoisomerase I inhibitors, and the absence of hematologic dose-limiting toxicity have made oxaliplatin an attractive compound for combinations. Phase II trials combining oxaliplatin with 5-FU and folinic acid ACRC patients previously treated/refractory to 5-FU showed overall response rates ranging from 21\% to 58\%, and survivals ranging from 12 to 17 months. In patients with previously untreated ACRC, combinations of oxaliplatin with 5-FU and folinic acid showed response rates ranging from 34\% to 67\% and median survivals ranging from 15 to 19 months. Two randomized trials totaling 620 previously untreated patients with ACRC, comparing 5-FU and folinic acid to the same regimen with oxaliplatin, have shown a 34\% overall response rate in the oxaliplatin group versus 12\% in the 5-FU/folinic acid group for the first trial; and 51.2\% vs. 22.6\% in the second one. These statistically significant differences were confirmed in time to progression advantage for the oxaliplatin arm (8.7 vs. 6.1 months, and 8.7 vs. 6.1 months, respectively). A small but consistent number of histological complete responses have been reported in patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with the combination of oxaliplatin with 5-FU/folinic acid, and secondary metastasectomy is increasingly done by oncologists familiar with the combination. Based on preclinical and clinical reports showing additive or synergistic effects between oxaliplatin and several anticancer drugs including cisplatin, irinotecan, topotecan, and paclitaxel, clinical trials of combinations with other compounds have been performed or are still ongoing in tumor types in which oxaliplatin alone showed antitumoral activity such as ovarian, non-small-cell lung, breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Its single agent and combination therapy data in ovarian cancer confirm its non-cross resistance with cisplatin/carboplatin. While the role of oxaliplatin in medical oncology is yet to be fully defined, it appears to be an important new anticancer agent.
This article was published in Ann Oncol and referenced in Journal of Integrative Oncology

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