Author(s): Ward RA, McLeish KR
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Abstract Oxidant stress contributes to morbidity in hemodialysis patients. Three possible causes of oxidant stress have been suggested: the uremic state, the dialyzer membrane, and bacterial contaminants from the dialysate. Oxidant stress occurs in uremia before dialysis therapy is initiated, as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen species, increased levels of oxidized plasma proteins and lipids, and decreased antioxidant defenses. It has been proposed that increased production of reactive oxygen species during hemodialysis is also an important contributor to oxidant stress. Hemodialysis is associated with a transient increase in production of reactive oxygen species, particularly with cellulose membranes. In addition, surveys have shown widespread contamination of dialysate by endotoxin, which may cross membranes and prime production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytic cells. Recent studies, however, show a decrease in protein oxidation from pre- to post-dialysis and a normalization of neutrophil reactive oxygen species production. Taken together, these data suggest that uremia, per se, is the most important cause of oxidant stress in hemodialysis patients. Dialysate quality may also contribute to oxidant stress, but evidence that the dialyzer membrane plays a role is weak.
This article was published in Artif Organs
and referenced in Kidney Disorders and Clinical Practices