Author(s): Sinha S, Gupta M, Chandra P
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Abstract The effect of iron (FeCl3) on chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation product, potassium ion leakage (a measure of damage to the permeability barrier), and antioxidants was studied in Hydrilla verticillata. The effect of iron-induced damage to the plant was compared with those of N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), a sulfhydryl reagent, and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), an organic peroxide known to induce lipid peroxidation by free radical formation. The level of lipid peroxidation product was increased in the plants treated with Fe, CHP, and CHP + NEM but not with NEM alone. A significant increase in potassium ion leakage to the external solution was observed by the addition of Fe, CHP, and CHP + NEM, while this did not increase significantly in NEM-treated plants. When NEM and CHP were added simultaneously, the results were the same as those obtained with high iron concentrations, suggesting a combined effect of thiol depletion and lipid peroxidation by Fe ions. In addition, the results indicated loss of glutathione (GSH) and increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) under Fe stress, indicative of oxidative stress. The oxidative stress may increase the production of free radicals and subsequently resulted in peroxidation of lipids. Further, addition of iron increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) which may be due to enhanced production of oxygen free radical and related tissue damage. The results suggest that iron-induced damage in plants can be ascribed to a direct metal action on thiols and by toxic oxygen species. An increase in lipid peroxidation product and K+ leakage are the primary responses of iron toxicity on membrane damage. However, the decrease in chlorophyll content is part of the overall expression of iron toxicity.
This article was published in Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
and referenced in Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access