Author(s): Martin JP, Logsdon N
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Abstract Representative thiazines, xanthenes, acridines, and phenazines photosensitized the oxidation of reduced pyridine nucleotides and reduced glutathione when illuminated with low intensity visible light. Photooxidation resulted in oxygen consumption and in superoxide generation, assayed as the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. The major pathway of electron transfer involved dye reduction rather than singlet oxygen-mediated oxidation of the substrate, as demonstrated by the relative insensitivity of the oxidation to inhibition by sodium azide and by the observable bleaching of the dye. Hydrogen peroxide was a stable end product of photooxidation. Photosensitive dyes were photoreduced intracellularly. These dyes were transported across the membranes of Escherichia coli B and stimulated a light- and concentration-dependent increase in the cyanide-insensitive respiration. Dyes reduced intracellularly subsequently diffused out of the cell where they reduced extracellular cytochrome c. The photosensitive dyes examined in this study exhibited a light-dependent bacteriostatic effect on E. coli B grown in nutrient broth, manifested as an increased lag prior to growth. Restoration of growth coincided with increased levels of SOD, and the intracellular level of SOD correlated with the level of illumination, the dye concentration, and the reactivity of the dye to NADH in vitro. The thiazine dye, toluidine blue o, imposed a light- and oxygen-dependent lethality on E. coli B grown in glucose minimal medium. Toxicity was relieved by hydroxyl radical scavengers, and their ability to protect the cells was proportional to their reactivity with the hydroxyl radical. The results indicate that oxygen radicals and related species mediate photodynamic effects in E. coli B.
This article was published in Arch Biochem Biophys
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology