Author(s): Gualberto A, Marquez G, Carballo M, Youngblood GL, Hunt SW rd,
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Abstract Previous reports have indicated that benzothiophenes exhibit broad anti-inflammatory properties and inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We show that the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) and benzothiophene-2-carboxamide, 5-methoxy-3-(1-methyl ethoxy)-1-oxide (PD 144795) block the induction of p53 and NF-kappaB binding to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) by the T cell receptor activator phytohemagglutinin. CsA and PD 144795 also inhibit the induction by phytohemagglutinin of the transcription mediated by an HIV-1 LTR fragment containing the p53 and NF-kappaB sites. These effects of PD 144795 on HIV-1 transcription correlate with its ability to inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin and are similar to those previously described for CsA. Moreover, a constitutive active form of calcineurin is able to induce expression from the HIV-1 LTR in a p53- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner and PD 144795 is able to block this induction. These results demonstrate that the DNA binding of p53 to the HIV-1 LTR can be modulated by calcineurin and provide a framework to understand the anti-HIV properties of benzothiophene derivatives.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry