Author(s): Nussbaum A, Stroup TS
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Paliperidone, risperidone's active metabolite, is now available in an oral formulation for daily use, and an intramuscular formulation for monthly administration may follow shortly. OBJECTIVES: To compare effects of oral paliperidone with any other treatment for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like illnesses. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (December 2006), and inspected references of identified studies for further trials. We contacted the manufacturers of paliperidone, the Food and Drug Administration, and authors of relevant trials for additional material. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently selected and critically appraised studies, extracted data and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Where possible and appropriate, we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95\% confidence intervals (CI) with the number needed to treat (NNT). We calculated Weighted Mean Differences (WMD) for continuous data. MAIN RESULTS: Five studies compared paliperidone with placebo. Fewer people left the studies early if they were randomized to paliperidone (n=1647, 5 RCTs, RR 0.68 CI 0.61 to 0.76, NNT 7 CI 6 to 9) and those receiving any dose of paliperidone were significantly more likely to have an improvement in global state (n=1420, 4RCTs, RR 0.69 CI 0.63 to 0.75, NNT 5 CI 4 to 6). People randomised to paliperidone were less likely to experience a recurrence of psychosis (n=1638, 5 RCTs, RR 0.45 CI 0.31 to 0.66, NNT 16 CI 13 to 26) than those allocated to placebo. Adverse effect data were not well reported but paliperidone does seem to produce a greater incidence of tachycardia than placebo (n=1638, 5 RCTs, RR1.88 CI 1.28 to 2.76, NNH 21 CI 11 to 90) and a consistent, significant elevation in serum prolactin was found for both men (n=413, 3 RCTs, WMD 27.68 CI 23.66 to 31.69) and women (n=252, 3 RCTs, WMD 87.39 CI 74.27 to 100.51). People receiving paliperidone were more likely to experience extrapyramidal disorders (n=1638, 5 RCTs, RR 2.21 CI 1.26 to 3.88, NNH 28 CI 12 to 129) and weight gain (n=769, 4 RCTs, WMD 1.07 CI 0.65 to 1.49, I-squared 78\%) compared with those allocated to placebo. When compared with 10 mg/day olanzapine we found no differences between paliperidone and olanzapine for leaving in the short term (n=1332, 3 RCTs, RR 1.04 CI 0.89 to 1.21; 40\% in both groups left by six weeks). Those receiving any dose of paliperidone were no more likely to have a recurrence of psychotic symptoms than those receiving 10 mg/day olanzapine (n=1327, 3 RCTs, RR 0.1.07 CI 0.64 to 1.76). Data from all three studies found paliperidone was less likely to produce a weight change than olanzapine (n=660, 3 RCTs, WMD -0.88 CI -1.38 to -0.37). Results for various movement disorders all favoured olanzapine. There are no clear data relating to social functioning, services use, quality of life, satisfaction and cost. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In short-term studies, oral paliperidone is an antipsychotic that is more efficacious than placebo. We found its adverse effects to be similar to those of its parent compound, risperidone, with movement disorders, weight gain, and tachycardia all more common with paliperidone than placebo. In addition, paliperidone is associated with substantial increases in serum prolactin that may be associated with sexual dysfunction, although sexual functioning outcomes were not reported. At doses greater than 3 mg per day, oral paliperidone appears comparable in efficacy to oral olanzapine 10 mg per day. Regarding the critical comparison of oral paliperidone to risperidone, we have no information and are thus unable to determine if paliperidone has any advantages or disadvantages compared to its well-known parent compound.
This article was published in Cochrane Database Syst Rev
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