Author(s): Shi JC, Yang P, Tong Q, Jia L
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Abstract A series of 1-(2-diphenylphosphinoferrocenyl)ethyl-3-substituted imidazolium iodides [3-substituent = methyl (1a); isopropyl (1b); tert-butyl (1c); 1-adenosyl (1d); cyclohexyl (1e); 2,6-dimethylphenyl (1f); 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl (1g); 2,6-diisopropylphenyl (1h)] have been prepared and evaluated as ligands in the palladium-catalyzed aminations of aryl halides with various amines. The scope of the coupling process was carried out for various aryl bromides and chlorides with the catalysts generated in situ from a mixture of Pd(OAc)2 and in the presence of a base. NaO t Bu was found the choice of base in combination with dioxane, toluene, or DME as solvent, although NaOH or Cs2CO3 promoted the coupling of 4-bromotoluene with morpholine in moderate conversion. The steric hindrance from the 3-substituent of imidazolium in the hybrid-bidentate chelating system was found to be only beneficial to the substrates without ortho-substituents. The more sterically hindered 1d or 1h promoted the coupling of bromobenzene with morpholine in nearly quantitative conversion with 0.2 mol\% of palladium loading in the presence of NaO t Bu at 110 degrees C, and 94\% of conversion was afforded with the less sterical demanding 1a for a longer time. However, for the substrates with ortho-substituents, higher conversions were achieved with 1a. The Pd(OAc)2/1d catalytic system was also active for deactivated aryl chloride, and 71\% isolated yield for the desired product was realized for coupling of 4-chloroanisole with morpholine at 2 mol\% of catalyst loading. The developed catalyst system has been applied successfully to the synthesis of a key building block for a type of functional polymers.
This article was published in Dalton Trans
and referenced in Chemical Sciences Journal