Author(s): Yount JS, Moltedo B, Yang YY, Charron G, Moran TM,
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Abstract Identification of immune effectors and the post-translational modifications that control their activity is essential for dissecting mechanisms of immunity. Here we demonstrate that the antiviral activity of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is post-translationally regulated by S-palmitoylation. Large-scale profiling of palmitoylated proteins in a dendritic cell line using a chemical reporter strategy revealed over 150 lipid-modified proteins with diverse cellular functions, including innate immunity. We discovered that S-palmitoylation of IFITM3 on membrane-proximal cysteines controls its clustering in membrane compartments and its antiviral activity against influenza virus. The sites of S-palmitoylation are highly conserved among the IFITM family of proteins in vertebrates, which suggests that S-palmitoylation of these immune effectors may be an ancient post-translational modification that is crucial for host resistance to viral infections. The S-palmitoylation and clustering of IFITM3 will be important for elucidating its mechanism of action and for the design of antiviral therapeutics.
This article was published in Nat Chem Biol
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics