Author(s): Cheer SM, Prakash A, Faulds D, Lamb HM
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Abstract Pantoprazole (Protonix) is an irreversible proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that reduces gastric acid secretion. In combination with two antimicrobial agents (most commonly metronidazole, clarithromycin or amoxicillin) for 6-14 days, pantoprazole 40 mg twice daily produced Helicobacter pylori eradication rates of 71-93.8\% (intent-to-treat [ITT] or modified ITT analysis) in patients without known antibacterial resistance. Pantoprazole-containing triple therapy was at least as effective as omeprazole- and similar in efficacy to lansoprazole-containing triple therapy in large trials. In the treatment of moderate to severe gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), oral pantoprazole 40 mg/day was as effective as other PPIs (omeprazole, omeprazole multiple unit pellet system, lansoprazole and esomeprazole) and significantly more effective than histamine H(2)-antagonists. Pantoprazole 20 mg/day provided effective mucosal healing in patients with GORD and mild oesophagitis. Intravenous pantoprazole 40 mg/day can be used in patients who are unable to take oral medication. Oral pantoprazole 20-40 mg/day for up to 24 months prevented relapse in most patients with healed GORD. According to preliminary data, oral pantoprazole 20 or 40 mg/day was effective at healing and preventing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-related ulcers, and intravenous pantoprazole was at least as effective as intravenous ranitidine in preventing ulcer rebleeding after endoscopic haemostasis. Oral or intravenous pantoprazole up to 240 mg/day maintained target acid output levels in most patients with hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Oral and intravenous pantoprazole appear to be well tolerated in patients with acid-related disorders in short- and long-term trials. Tolerability with oral pantoprazole was similar to that with other PPIs or histamine H(2)-antagonists in short-term trials. Formal drug interaction studies have not revealed any clinically significant interactions between pantoprazole and other agents. In conclusion, pantoprazole is an effective agent in the management of acid-related disorders. As a component of triple therapy for H. pylori eradication and as monotherapy for the healing of oesophagitis and maintenance of GORD, pantoprazole has shown similar efficacy to other PPIs and greater efficacy than histamine H(2)-antagonists. Limited data suggest that it is also effective in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and in preventing ulcer rebleeding. Pantoprazole is well tolerated with minimal potential for drug interactions. The availability of pantoprazole as both oral and intravenous formulations provides flexibility when the oral route of administration is not appropriate. Thus, pantoprazole is a valuable alternative to other PPIs in the treatment of acid-related disorders.
This article was published in Drugs
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System