Author(s): Zhang XP, Loke KE, Mital S, Chahwala S, Hintze TH
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Abstract Amlodipine is a mixture of two enantiomers, one having L-type channel blocking activity (S-) and the other about 1,000-fold weaker activity and of little known other activity (R+). To determine whether the R+ enantiomer releases nitric oxide, the ability of amlodipine, its enantiomers, and nitrendipine to release nitric oxide in isolated coronary microvessels and to regulate cardiac tissue oxygen consumption via nitric oxide release was studied in vitro. Amlodipine and the R+ enantiomer released nitric oxide in a concentration-dependent fashion, increasing nitrite release from coronary microvessels by 57 +/- 12 and 45 +/- 5 pmol/mg/20 min at 10(-6) M (p < 0.05 from control). Nitrite release was entirely blocked by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and HOE-140, a B2-kinin receptor antagonist. The S- enantiomer had no effect on nitrite release at any concentration. Amlodipine and the R+ enantiomer also reduced oxygen consumption in canine cardiac tissue in vitro and this was in an L-NAME-blockable manner. The S- enantiomer of amlodipine had no effect. This study shows that the R+ enantiomer of amlodipine is responsible for the release of nitric oxide and not the S- enantiomer (the L-type calcium channel blocking portion of amlodipine). Interestingly, nitric oxide release is dependent on the production of kinins because it is blocked by HOE-140. This study defines a potentially important property by which calcium channel blockers may release nitric oxide and may contribute to their use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
This article was published in J Cardiovasc Pharmacol
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta