Author(s): Kastan MB, Onyekwere O, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B, Craig RW
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Abstract The inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis that follows DNA damage may be critical for avoiding genetic lesions that could contribute to cellular transformation. Exposure of ML-1 myeloblastic leukemia cells to nonlethal doses of the DNA damaging agents, gamma-irradiation or actinomycin D, causes a transient inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis via both G1 and G2 arrests. Levels of p53 protein in ML-1 cells and in proliferating normal bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells increase and decrease in temporal association with the G1 arrest. In contrast, the S-phase arrest of ML-1 cells caused by exposure to the anti-metabolite, cytosine arabinoside, which does not directly damage DNA, is not associated with a significant change in p53 protein levels. Caffeine treatment blocks both the G1 arrest and the induction of p53 protein after gamma-irradiation, thus suggesting that blocking the induction of p53 protein may contribute to the previously observed effects of caffeine on cell cycle changes after DNA damage. Unlike ML-1 cells and normal bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells, hematopoietic cells that either lack p53 gene expression or overexpress a mutant form of the p53 gene do not exhibit a G1 arrest after gamma-irradiation; however, the G2 arrest is unaffected by the status of the p53 gene. These results suggest a role for the wild-type p53 protein in the inhibition of DNA synthesis that follows DNA damage and thus suggest a new mechanism for how the loss of wild-type p53 might contribute to tumorigenesis.
This article was published in Cancer Res
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology